How do you know when your bead is “done”? Do you time it? Do you look for a certain color? Do you stick it with a toothpick to see if it comes out clean?

‘using temperature to test doneness’
‘using temperature to test doneness’

An empirical method is to takes its temperature.

Bread dough has moisture. The heat in the oven removes moisture. The boiling point of water is 212F.

If we put all of this together we know “the closer to 212F, the less moisture remaining in the bread.”

If you stick a thermometer in a loaf of bread while it’s cooking at its over 212F, it will be dry and unpleasant. A good target is 203-207F. This gives some margin of error.